Journal of Applied Science and Education (JASE) <p><img style="float: left; padding-right: 10px; width: 300px; height: 400px;" src="" alt="" width="300" height="400" /></p> <p align="justify">International journal <strong>"Journal of Applied Science and Education (JASE)"</strong> is a scholarly, peer-reviewed, and fully refereed open access international research journal published twice a year in the Multiple Languages (English, Hindi), provides an international forum for the publication and dissemination of theoretical and practice-oriented papers, dealing with problems of modern technology (Applied Engineering, Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics, Engineering Physics, Statistics, Environmental Sciences, Geology, Social Sciences, Biology, Natural and Technological Sciences, Linguistics, Food Science, Agricultural Engineering, Professional Ethics, Behavioural Science, etc). <strong>JASE</strong> welcomes regular papers, short papers, review articles, etc. The journal reviews papers within three-six weeks of submission and publishes accepted articles online immediately upon receiving the final versions. All the papers in the journal are freely accessible as online full-text content and permanent worldwide web link. The article will be indexed and available in major academic international databases. <strong>JASE</strong> welcomes you to submit your research for possible publication in <strong>JASE</strong> through our online submission system. <strong>ISSN: 2583-1372 (E)</strong></p> A2Z Journals en-US Journal of Applied Science and Education (JASE) 2583-1372 Cyber Security Threats and Countermeasures in Digital Age <p><em>Due to the quick development of technology, the digital age has brought with it ad-vantages never before seen, but it has also opened the door to a flood of new cyber security concerns. This study offers detailed analysis of the cyber threat environment in the digital era along with suggestions for doable protective measures. The report outlines a number of cyber threats, including malware, phishing scams, ransomware, and insider threats. It looks at the continually evolving tactics employed by cyber-criminals, such as social engineering, zero-day flaws, and sophisticated persistent threats. The growing hazards associated with cutting-edge technology, such as the Internet of Things (IoT), cloud computing, and artificial intelligence, are also exam-ined. The importance of a multi-layered security strategy to counter these attacks is emphasized in the article. Among the important preventative measures that are presented are robust network security, secure coding methodologies, user awareness training, encryption, access controls, and incident response planning. It also high-lights how crucial it is for people, businesses, and governments to collaborate in or-der to confront cyber risks. By using the recommended solutions and promoting a culture of cyber security awareness, people and organizations may navigate the dig-ital age with confidence and protect themselves from the continuously evolving environment of cyber risks.</em></p> Manikant Thakur Copyright (c) 2021 Manikant Thakur 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 4 1 1 20 10.54060/a2zjournals.jase.42 An Overview of Strategies for Conceptualizing Derivative and their Applications in Daily Life for Secondary-Level Mathematics Students <p><em>Derivative is a foundational concept in calculus but can be challenging for secondary students to grasp conceptually. This paper provides an overview of research-backed strategies for developing a strong conceptual understanding of derivative. Visual and intuitive approaches are discussed, such as relating the derivative to real-world con-texts involving speed, growth, and modeling phenomena. The importance of multiple linked representations and building connections between graphical, numeric, verbal and symbolic perspectives is emphasized. Strategies for motivating learning through real-world applications and simulations relating concepts to students' lives are out-lined. Procedural expertise and conceptual mastery are cultivated together. The benefits of a conceptual learning, problem solving abilities, and STEM-related fields are noted. Curricular recommendations focus on conceptual exploration prior to for-mal definitions. Thus, the paper highlights best practices for conceptualizing deriva-tive through visual-intuitive, multi-representational and application-based ap-proaches to promote flexible, adaptive understanding and lay the groundwork for calculus success.</em></p> Rajendra Kunwar Copyright (c) 2021 Rajendra Kunwar 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 4 1 1 18 10.54060/a2zjournals.jase.44 Face Detection and Counting: Recent Advances and Future Research Directions <p><em>In recent years, face detection and counting have undergone a remarkable transfor-mation due to the emergence of deep learning techniques, particularly Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). These methods have surpassed traditional computer vision approaches, benefiting from vast datasets and robust computational resources. CNN’s, the cornerstone of contemporary face recognition systems, excel in accurately identifying faces across diverse conditions and environments. The ascendancy of CNNs in face detection stems from their capacity to autonomously learn hierarchical features from raw pixel data, obviating the need for manual feature engineering. Consequently, they yield resilient systems capable of accommodating real-world variations like lighting, pose, expression, and occlusion. Their scalability enables the efficient processing of extensive image databases, rendering them invaluable for applications requiring face counting amidst crowded scenes. Nonetheless, challenges persist, particularly in deploying these systems on resources-constrained devices. The computational complexity and storage demand of deep CNNs necessitate ongoing exploration of lightweight network architectures that balances accuracy with reduced computational footprint. The historical Violajones algorithm, while foundational, has been eclipsed by the superior performance of CNNs. Deep learning’s prowess lies in its adaptability to various tasks and its capacity to continuously refine itself with more data. By learning features directly from data, CNNs excel in capturing intricate patterns crucial for precise face detection and counting. Deep learning, especially through CNNs, has revolutionized face detection and counting by delivering unparal-leled accuracy and robustness. However, ongoing efforts are crucial to address challenges in the efficiency and accessibility of these systems for broader deployment across various applications and devices.</em></p> Shyam Sundar Singh Vineet Singh Dr. Shikha Singh Dr. Bramah Hazela Copyright (c) 2024 Shyam Sundar Singh, Vineet Singh, Dr. Shikha Singh, Dr. Bramah Hazela 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 4 1 1 8 10.54060/a2zjournals.jase.69 Solving a Birkhoff Interpolation Problem for (0, 1, 5) Data <p><em>The following research work deals with a special type of Birkhoff’s interpolation problem in which we have 3 sets of data prescribed in the unit interval I = [0, 1]. Data values are the function value, first derivatives and fifth derivatives prescribed at nodes of the unit interval. We obtained a unique spline interpolating the given data along with the convergence problem.</em></p> Dr. Rama Nand Mishra Dr. Akhilesh Kumar Mishra Dr. Kulbhushan Singh Dr. Arunesh Kumar Mishra Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. Rama Nand Mishra, Dr. Akhilesh Kumar Mishra, Dr. Kulbhushan Singh, Dr. Arunesh Kumar Mishra 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 4 1 1 5 10.54060/a2zjournals.jase.30 Exploring Bismuth (III) Sulpha Drugs Schiff Base Coordination Complexes: Design, Synthesis, Structural, Spectroscopic Characterization, and Biological Evaluations <p><em>The present study aimed to prepare and then evaluate the tetra and coordinated Bismuth (III) complexes [BiCl<sub>2</sub> (L)] (LH = N, O donor Schiff base employed by the condensation of 1-acetyl-2-naphthol and 2-acetyl-1-naphthol using sulpha drugs as ligand) were derived by the reaction of bismuth (III) trichloride and sodium salt of an N, O donor Schiff base ligand and characterized. The authenticity of all the synthesized ligands and their Bi (III) complexes had been identified by microanalysis, various spectroscopic techniques like FT-IR, <sup>1</sup>H NMR, and elemental analysis. The spectral evidence of the complexes has revealed the bidentate complexing nature of the Schiff base through phenolic oxygen and azomethine nitrogen atoms. The Schiff base ligand and Bismuth (III) complexes were assessed for antimicrobial activity. Assessment of antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative &amp; Gram-positive bacteria and fungi has demonstrated that the complex (III) was more active than the Schiff base.</em></p> HARI SHANKAR YADAV Dr. Gopal Lal Kumawat Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. Hari Shankar Yadav, Dr. Gopal Lal Kumawat 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 4 1 1 11 10.54060/a2zjournals.jase.47 Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Student Teacher Evaluation Questionnaire (STEQ) for Teacher <p><em>Philippines currently facing a learning crisis in the K to 12 evaluations. With explora-tory and confirmatory factor analysis, this study developed a teacher evaluation questionnaire for effective teaching mathematics. Participants are coming from math teachers (N1 = 65), students (N2 = 76), principals and math supervisors (N3 = 61). Exploratory factor Analysis identified 15 factors. Multiple factor characteristics and literature provides support for 61 items on 15 factors. Confirmatory factor analy-sis, using the second sample (N=202), examined the 15-factor model identified from the exploratory factor analysis. Fit indices were used to evaluate the model fit, and these indices were able to identify the seven most fit factors. The Cronbach alpha coefficient is (0.903) excellent from the third sample (N=71). These analyses provide support for the seven-factor structure of the final 17-items STEQ, which will serve as a valuable classroom teacher evaluation tool for both supervisors and researchers to assess teachers teaching effectiveness in the Southern part of Mindanao. It is rec-ommended to utilize the STEQ to determine effective teachers in teaching mathe-matics to elevate the numeracy performance of the country.</em></p> Live Angga Copyright (c) 2021 Live Angga 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 4 1 1 12 10.54060/a2zjournals.jase.38 The Financial Toll of BMI on Health Services: A Comparative Cost Assessment Using Big Data <p><em>The escalating prevalence of elevated Body Mass Index (BMI) levels worldwide has led to a substantial burden on healthcare systems, posing considerable economic challenges. This research paper presents a comparative cost assessment that delves into the intricate relationship between BMI and its financial impact on health ser-vices. The rise in obesity and overweight individuals has been linked to a surge in chronic health conditions, including cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, muscu-loskeletal disorders, and certain cancers, which necessitate extensive medical inter-ventions, long-term treatments, and management, thereby amplifying healthcare expenditures significantly. Beyond direct healthcare costs, the economic repercus-sions encompass productivity losses, absenteeism from work, and diminished quality of life for affected individuals. This comparative cost assessment aims to analyze healthcare expenditure data from various demographic groups to uncover the dif-ferential impact of BMI on healthcare costs. By exploring preventive measures, in-terventions, and policy frameworks, the study seeks to mitigate the economic strain on healthcare systems resulting from BMI-related health complications. Under-standing the intricate relationship between BMI and healthcare costs is crucial in formulating evidence-based strategies to address this growing challenge, providing valuable insights for policymakers, healthcare practitioners, and stakeholders, guid-ing the implementation of effective measures to alleviate the financial burden on health services while promoting improved health outcomes for populations globally.</em></p> Adnan Brankovic Jukić Samed Copyright (c) 2021 Adnan Brankovic, Jukić Samed 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 4 1 1 19 10.54060/a2zjournals.jase.46